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Late paleolithic of the region of the Dniester and the Carpathians. (Chronostratigraphy, cultural genesis and paleoecology)

Author: Borziac Ilie
Degree:doctor habilitat of history
Speciality: 07.00.06 - Archaeology
Scientific adviser: Gheorghe Postică
doctor habilitat, professor, Free International University of Moldova
Scientific council:


The thesis was presented on the 19 December, 2008
Approved by NCAA on the 18 June, 2009


Adobe PDF document0.49 Mb / in romanian


CZU 902/904 „6325” (043.2)=135.1

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Archeology; Central Europe; the region of the Dniester and the Carpathians; the Eastern Carpathians; Moldova; the Dniester; the Prut; upper paleolithic; Climauţi; Molodova; Mitoc; Gordinesti; Corpaci; Cosauţi; Costesti; Ripiceni-Izvor; chronostratigraphy; quarterly period; technocomplex; culture; culture variant; facies; seat; station;instrument of labor; flint; cultural layer; stage; loess; Levallois; musterian; szeletian; Aurignacian; Gravettian; epiaurignacian; epigravettian; mezolithic; epipaleolithic; sviderian; Stînca culture; Brinzeni culture; the Prut culture; MCCM culture; fauna; faunal complex; flora; acculturation; transitional industry; index; nucleus; type; typic; typology; industry; scraper; strickle; plate; retouch; symbiotic culture; region; synergy; kinematics; correlation; spatial development; splitting; primary splitting; secondary processing; retouch; area; technology; detachment; plate; evolution; adaptation; environment; fauna of mollusks; palynology; paleoecology; evolution vector


The Habilitate’s degree thesis “Late paleolithic of the region of the Dniester and the Carpathians. (Chronostratigraphy, cultural genesis and paleoecology) ” is a fundamental complex and complete scientific research and makes the conclusion of the 80-year period of studies of the epoch of the upper paleolithic in the region of the Dniester and the Carpathians and the adjacent territories.

The urgency and necessity of the subject development, its purposes and tasks, the materials provided are indicated in the introduction, its geographical and chronological limits are determined, conceptual and theoretical bases, the author’s theses and elaborations that are subject to be defended, a degree of the subject development and its evaluation by the author, its theoretical and practical significance, the research structure is revealed.

The first chapter is devoted to the research history and the subject historiography. The process of opening and establishing of the paleolithic studies as a science of the past in two separate traditional geographic subregions – that of the Carpathians and the Prut and that of the Prut and the Dniester; the stages and development of the factual and theoretical bases of the late paleolithic are singled out; the role of the preceding researchers is indicated: N. Moroshan, S. Nicolaescu- Plopshor, Al. Paunescu, M. Brudiu, M. Bitiry and V. Chirica in studying of the upper paleolithic between the Carpathians and the Prut and I. Botez, S. Ambrojevich, N. Moroshan, N. A. Chetraru, A. P. Chernysh, G. V. Grigorieva, P. I. Boriskovsky and the other researchers of the territory of the interfluve of the Prut and the Dniester. In the second and the third chapters, based on the previous researches of I. K. Ivanova and the new researches of P. Haesaerts of the stratigraphy of three basic multi-layer paleolithic stations of the area (Molodova V, Mitoc Malu-Galben and Cosauţi), based on more than 120 radiocarbone dates, a new interpretation of the relative and “exact” chronology of the late paleolithic is provided, the newly distinguished cultural subsections of the Aurignacian and Gravettian technocomplexes with the environmental changes synchronized that have been fixed in a new regional scheme of the natural process evolution at the stage of the late quarterly period. In the fourth chapter, the author describes, singles out and proves through the concepts and facts the stages of the early upper paleolithic, which turns out to be a strange pre- Aurignacian in the area, where the industries of the type of Stinka I are included (early-Stinka musterian culture, and recently – the pre-szeletian culture according to N. A. Anisuytkin) and the “ symbiotic” culture of the local evolution – Brinzeni and the Prut. The first one is transient from the musterian to the late paleolith and the second one is included in the Aurignacian technocomplex. A number of the subsections of the Aurignacian technocomplex: Early Aurignacian without bilateral forms of the type of Mitok MG-Corpaci Mîs; Early Aurignacian with bilateral forms of the type of Climauti I; the Prut symbiotic culture; the Middle and the late Aurignacian without bilateral forms are singled out, founded in the chronological and cultural aspects. Various connections and interactions between the Aurignacian and Gravettian subsections of the adjacent territories are revealed. The sixth chapter is devoted to the individualization, chronological and cultural separation and description of the subsections of the Gravettian technocomplex. The following are singled out: Early Gravett of the type of Moldova – Mitoc; the Middle Gravettian with the points of a side cut and the Middle Gravettian without them; Late Gravettian (Epigravettian) united in the culture of Molodova – Cosauti – Cotu – Miculinţi (MCCM) is considered as a megaculture of the late paleolithic with large territorial spread. Further, it was supposed to be separated in the separate local cultures.

In the seventh chapter, the appearance and existence of the famous multilayer paleolithic stations of the area are considered as a phenomenon connected tightly to the process of the man’s adaptation to the way of existence of the separate types of the prey and spreading of the separate types of the natural resources depending on the alteration of the yearly and cyclic changes of the flora and fauna.

The eighth chapter is dedicated to the problems of interrelation of the man and the environment, revelation of the mechanisms of influence of the environment on the lifestyle and life support and reproduction, accumulation and changes in the experience of survival at the severe conditions of the last würmien glaciation. In the ninth chapter, the man’s stations in this region are analyzed at the late glacial period and processes of the environment influence on the transformations of the late Gravettian in the epipaleolithic. The analysis of the stone industry does not enable the author to detect the exact transition from the paleolithic to the mezolithic in this area. A range of the objective and subjective factors is presented in the man’s overcoming of the economic “crisis”, which was caused by the disappearance of the herds of the migrating cattle in the region during the transition from the pleistocene to the Holocene.