StatusThe thesis was presented on the 11 June, 2005
Approved by NCAA on the 22 September, 2005
Abstract– 0.59 Mb / in romanian
This thesis, in form of a scientific paper, aims at examining a broad range of methodological issues of applicative nature related to long-term non-material and material assets accounting.
Respecting the cause - effect relation, primary and secondary relation, as well as the principles of representation of the particular within the general, the definitions of the asset regarded as a patrimonial element of the enterprise and of the asset as a factor of production are formulated, fact that allowed excluding the common principles of all groups of assets, including assets as a factor of production from the particular definitions. Within this context, the definitions of non-material assets in execution, non-material assets in utilization, long-term material assets, material assets in execution, fixed assets, land are defined taking in consideration cognitive and scientific purposes.
The need to extend the classified list of the inventory of fixed assets for a more accurate determination of the differentiated useful lifetime, in order to solve the issue of capitalization of complete overhaul costs (expenditures) and to determine the exploitation costs (expenditures) was explained.
The definition of recognizing assets as an accounting procedure comprising the examination of their capacities, definitions of established criteria, the time of their recognition and their registration was formulated.
Respecting the principles of prudence, correspondence, periodicity, the directions of the improvement of methods of initial assessment of fixed assets, land, natural resources are reasoned; the necessity to refuse the re-assessment in case of sale of certain fixed assets, of the reutilization of fixed assets after their lifetime in order to “regulate the profit” is underlined.
The method of accounting of non-material assets determined by the economic and legal characteristics regarding their involvement in the economic circuit of the enterprise in different ways (creation with one’s own forces, purchased, invested in form of contribution to the statutory capital, exchange, for free etc), the transmission of the right of utilization of non-material assets with and without preserving the title of owner by the owner of rights is explained for the first time. The method of accounting of future expenditures after the prolongation of the validity of the safety title of certain non-material assets is brought up, explaining the cases of capitalization of these expenditures.
The method of accounting of material assets in execution, of the incoming and outgoing fixed assets is grounded. Particular attention is paid to the issues of accounting, overhaul costs (expenditures) by establishing commissions, assessment and reflection of used material assets obtained as result of removing from the operation of fixed assets, to the method of accounting of the recuperation of the material damage caused by the discovery of missing fixed assets during the inventory based on the report of the liquidity degree of assets and exigibility of liabilities.
For the first time certain accounting issues related to natural resources are explained based on the criteria set by the author, such as the belonging of resources to the enterprise or to the state, taking into consideration the way these resources are extracted (through sounding, open/closed extraction) and the characteristics of the land containing the resources.