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Biological peculiarities of sweet cherry and improvement of assortment in Republic of Moldova


Author: Ecaterina Ceban
Degree:doctor of agriculture
Speciality: 06.01.07 - Fruit Production
Year:2006
Scientific adviser: Victor Bucarciuc
doctor habilitat, professor, Practical Scientific Institute of Horticulture and Food Technology
Scientific consultant: Mihail Rapcea
doctor habilitat, professor, Practical Scientific Institute of Horticulture and Food Technology
Institution: Research Institute for Horticulture
Scientific council:

Status

The thesis was presented on the 15 December, 2005
Approved by NCAA on the 26 January, 2006

Abstract

Adobe PDF document0.20 Mb / in romanian
Adobe PDF document0.25 Mb / in russian

Thesis

CZU 634.22: 632.11

Adobe PDF document 1.40 Mb / in russian
113 pages


Keywords

sweet cherry, variety, elite, ecotype, ecologic-geographic group, diversity, correlation, crop capacity, assortment, resistance, profitability

Summary

In the dissertation were reflected results of investigation of biological, genetic and phenotypic characteristics of 250 varieties and elite forms of sweet cherry, by origin from 8 ecologic-geographic groups. It was studied: tree parameters, peculiarities of flowing, fruit bearing, fruit, resistance to leaf sport, correlation between different characteristics, economical effect of varieties.

It was established that ecologic-geographic groups and varieties into them, differ by studied characteristics and selection of the best of them for conditions of Republic of Moldova is possible for any ecotype. Diversity of principle ecologic-geographic groups in conditions of Republic of Moldova by the tree parameters composes 2.21% (tree height), 10.32% (crown diameter), 42.7% (trunk diameter), and correlation of characteristics varies in dependence from ecotype.

Phases of development of tree characteristics depend, in generally, from genetic peculiarities of varieties, however, they are found to a marked degree after control of the weather conditions. The influence of varieties to forming of characteristics of flowering composes 54,9% (beginning of flowering), 44.3% (end of flowering) and 2.3% (duration of flowering), but the influence of years compose accordingly 31.9%, 36.9% and 18.5%. With interaction of varieties pollinator and pollinated varieties influence approximately equally, trustworthy and insignificantly to fruit setting of fruit accordingly at 5.9% and 3.4%. The influence of interaction of them was significant – 13.7%. It was established different genotype diversity between varieties at fruit weight 74.3%, the most fruit diameter 92.8%, the least diameter 96.0%, the fruit height 88.8%. Investigation of chemical analysis of fruit composition revealed a possibility of appreciated of varieties, the fruit of which may be used for consuming fresh and for processing.

It was adduced analysis of affection of varieties by leaf sport. Varieties distinguished comparatively less affected to this disease: Vinca, Caştanca, Таina, Bigarreau Оratovscogo, Stella, Pozdniaia Lermontova.

It was studied correlation between characteristics of sweet cherry that assisted of distinguishing of varieties as initial forms for selection. It was presented - biochemical analysis of sweet cherry fruit with indication of direction of using of ones. It was proved fruit size and chemical composition of sweet cherry varieties depend from time of ripening ones. Varieties of late ripening have fruit greater and chemical composition is richer.

It was presented – mark of economical effect of varieties and elite forms of sweet cherry.

For the State Testing 45 sweet cherry varieties have been passed. Assortment of sweet cherry for Republic of Moldova was improvement with 8 new varieties of different periods of ripening and harvesting: Kashtanka, Dagestanka, Vinka, Livedianka, Maslovskaya, Rossoshanskaya zolotaya, Tayna, Pozdniaya Lermontova, means profitability of them was more then 250%.