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Contributions to the genesis of the early thracian hallstatt in the carpatian-danubian-pontic space

Author: Andrei Nicic
Degree:doctor of history
Speciality: 07.00.06 - Archaeology
Scientific adviser: Ion Niculiţă
doctor habilitat, professor, Moldova State University
Scientific council:


The thesis was presented on the 14 April, 2006
Approved by NCAA on the 29 June, 2006


Adobe PDF document0.32 Mb / in romanian


CZU 902.01 (043.2)

Adobe PDF document 16.00 Mb / in romanian
379 pages


geographical framework, habitat, necropolis, topography, cartography, pits with skeletons, cultural group, aspect, incised ceramics, horizon “with incised ceramics”, chronology, north-western pontic space, cultural-geographic zone, Lower Danube, Middle Dniester basin, Upper Southern Bug region, Lower Dnieper, „period of transition”, element of final bronze (late), decoration, ornament, bronze, iron, funerary rite and ritual


The work is focused on the study of the period between the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the first stage of Iron Age in northwestern pontic space. In this context are studied a series of cultural manifestation know in the specialty literature as Tămăoani, Babadag I, Holercani and Balta, whose ceramic assortment is often ornamented with incised motifs. The analysis of the assortment of cultural aspect “with incised ceramics” Babadag I–Tămăoani–Holercani–Balta, contributes to the elucidation of a series of aspect concerning the origin and evolution of the period between the final bronze and the first stage of iron age in the north-western pontic space. The cartography of the ceramic recipients with “incised decoration” from the monuments attributed to archaeological culture Babadag I–Tămăoani–Holercani and those from the aria of Belozerka culture form the north-western Pontic space gives us the possibility to underline three areas of cultural-geographical distribution of the incised ceramic discoveries:

The correlation of the decoration types in the zones of culturalgeographical distribution of discoveries „with incised ceramics” shows that the majority discoveries of incised decoration are concentrated in zone I – Lower Danube, then follow the discoveries of zone II – Middle Dniester, and zone III – Lower Dnieper region, in which the elements of incised decoration are found sporadically. This, probably, could indicate that the distribution of the recipients with incised decoration from northwestern Pontic space had as the weight center the cultures from Lower Danube region (Tămăoani, Babadag I) where they have been known from the period of late bronze.

One could point out at a series of good elements known in the Bronze Age (predominantly south orientation, position of skeletons, funerary constructions, etc) on the basis of comparative analysis of the details of funeral rite and ritual practices in cultures „with incised ceramics”. At the same time, the closeness up to identity of some elements of funerary rites and rituals from cultures „with incised ceramics” and the similar manifestations of the cultures with printed ceramics Babadag and Cozia– Saharna [Kašuba, 2000, 288], allow us to underline once more the role of Babadag I, Tămăoani–Holercani and Balta in the process of genesis of the monuments with printed ceramics. Taking a general look at the topography of all the discoveries attributed to cultural monuments “with incised ceramics” we can ascertain that the zones of maximum concentration of these discoveries do not correspond exactly to the groups of cultural massifs underlined by a series of researchers [Harţuche, 1972; Morintz, 1964, 1987; László, 1986; Leviţki, 1994; Vančugov, 1977, etc].

This situation forces us taking into account of the following considerations:

In what concerns the group Balta, taking into account the similarities of the funerary rite and ritual with those of Tămăoani and Holercani which is known little, permits the treatment of this aspect as part of Tămăoani–Holercani discoveries. The more detailed explanation of the relations between the group Balta and the monuments Tămăoani– Holercani could be possible only after a systematic research of a series of monuments attributed to culture Balta.