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Scientific basics of apple’s production for industrial manufacture in repeated culture


Author: Constantin Dadu
Degree:doctor habilitat of agriculture
Speciality: 06.01.07 - Fruit Production
Year:2007
Scientific consultant: Vasile Babuc
doctor habilitat, professor, Agrarian State University of Moldova
Institution: Research Institute for Horticulture
Scientific council:

Status

The thesis was presented on the 12 January, 2007
Approved by NCAA on the 1 March, 2007

Abstract

Adobe PDF document0.91 Mb / in romanian

Keywords

variety, tree, earth’s tiredness, earth’s rest period, repeated culture, compatibility in repeated culture, apple’s industrial manufacture, scheme of apple’s trees plantation, systems of tree’s conduction and cutting, construction of plantation, economical and energetical efficiency

Summary

In center part of RM, in the period of 1984-2003 years, were studied: the influence of fruit trees monoculture on the earth, on its productivity and phyto-sanitary state, that consist the “earth’s tiredness” notion; the strategies for its fighting; and the possibility of the apple’s trees plantation after the putting out of other fruit trees on the manufacture’s firms territories; formation of the assortment and technological elements in the plantation and exploitation process for the apple’s orchards.

Was proved, the long monoculture of fruit – bearing’s trees degrades the earth’s physics- chemical proprieties: diminution of productivity; phyto-sanitary state. All these have a negative influence on the fruit – bearing of apples trees planted after other trees.

There is a possibility of news trees plantation after a “rest period” : 4-5 years after the apple’s trees; 2-3 years after the pear –trees; 1-2 years after the plum – trees, peach – trees, cherry – trees. In this period must be cultivated such plants like: alfalfa, maize, rye and oat. The crops, which products are used in the nourishment and like the feedstock of the manufacture firms, are forbidden.

There are some principles of the assortment, satisfy the technical needs and the work’s rhythm of the manufacture’s firms: 10% - early summer’s kind; 15% - summer’s kind; 25% - autumn’s kind; 50% - later kind.

The next elements are developed and suggested to use in the plantation’s and exploitation’s process of the apple’s orchards:

The formation and development of the all wreath’s cut row :for the M4 trees, with a height of 3,0-3,6m, breadth -3,0-3,2m ,1,0-1,2 – growth to top; for the MM106 trees with 2 flat inclinations in the “V” form , 2,5 m-2,6-height;breadth-22,0-2,2m and2,8-3,0m-growth to top.

The assortment and the technological process suggested ensure a normal productivity in the 3-4 years; the growth of the productivity’s quality ≈18,6-28,6 tone/ha the recoverment of the investment in the 5-6 years , the level of the rent profitability that can touch the 74-78.