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Diversity, synanthropic process and urban ornithofauna conservation


Author: Natalia Vasilaşcu
Degree:doctor of biology
Speciality: 03.00.08 - Zoology
Year:2007
Scientific adviser: Andrei Munteanu
doctor, professor, Institute of Zoology, Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Scientific consultant: Nicolae Zubcov
doctor, associate professor (docent), Institute of Zoology, Academy of Sciences of Moldova
Institution:
Scientific council:

Status

The thesis was presented on the 16 March, 2007
Approved by NCAA on the 19 April, 2007

Abstract

Adobe PDF document0.47 Mb / in romanian

Thesis

CZU 598.2/9-15

Adobe PDF document 2.51 Mb / in romanian
120 pages


Keywords

ornithofauna, species, biodiversity, sinanthropy, urbanophilous species, adaptation, evolution, dynamics, density, phenology

Summary

In Chişinău city there were identified 89 bird species belonging to 57 genera, 33 families, 13 orders, which represent 33,46% from the whole avifauna of Moldova.

The most well represented and various is the bird fauna from the green area of the city: the park „Valea Morilor” (73 species), the park „Valea Trandafirilor” (71), the Dendrarium (71), the public garden „Ştefan cel Mare” (40 species). The mentioned biotopes have the role of “reserves” that keep the ornithofauna diversity and contribute at the same time to the bird distribution and adaptation within the city. It is possible that in the future the urban area will serve as saving “oasis” for many bird species from the natural environment, which have decrease their spreading area and or are endangered because of the anthropogenic pressing growth.

The phenological tableau of Chişinău ornithofauna includes 20 sedentary species (22,5%), 13 partially sedentary species (14,6%), 32 species summer guests (35,9%), 17 migratory species (19,1%) and 7 species winter visitors (7,86%). The majority of the birds constitute the arboreous group (25%) and those breeding in hollows (25%), the birds preferring the building constitute 17%, the brush species constitute 14%, the aquatic ones – 9%, on the soil surface – 5% and the birds that prefer various kind of cavities constitute 5%. The avifauna diversity according to the diversity Index (Sλ) decrease from the green area (12,35) to the new districts (3,18) and city center (2,35), and the dominance Index (C) increase from the green zone (0,17) to the new districts (0,32). We can see the significant role of the vegetation in increasing of ornithofauna diversity.

By the mean of factorial analysis for the first time the high degree of interdependence between the species number and bird density and the environment factors were emphasized.

For the first time the synathropic degree of the bird species from the urban environment was revealed. There are 7 obligatory species, 56 facultative species, 19 provisory species, 7 neutral species. This fact unveil that the urban environment offers favorable conditions similar to those from natural environment to the species with a high degree of ecological plasticity and offer them the possibility to find appropriate conditions for breeding and feeding in the city parks and squares. The synanthropic process can be considered as a creation of an ecological niche. All the mentioned above emphasize the conditions created by the urban environment as reserve for the ornithofauna protection.

The results of the study, in practical aspect will serve at the recommendation elaboration concerning the park generation by planting tree and shrubs species that will increase the ecological capacity for the attraction of a greater bird species number within the city area. This will contribute to the maintenance of the ecological equilibrium and to the optimization of the people recreation zone. The information about the quantitative urban avifauna indexes and the bird adaptation to the new life conditions can be used in the teaching process of the students from the educational institutions.