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The Contribution of the European Symbolism and of the bacovianism to the modernization of the Moldavian poetry

Author: Vladimir Vlas
Degree:doctor of philology
Speciality: 10.01.01 - Romanian Literature
Scientific adviser: Mihail Dolgan
doctor habilitat, professor, Institute of Philology
Institution: Institute of Literature and Folklore of the ASM


The thesis was presented on the 23 December, 2005
Approved by NCAA on the 23 February, 2006


Adobe PDF document0.33 Mb / in romanian


The present paper represents a complex investigation of the symbolism, from the viewpoint of the spatial intertextuality, which is an international means of communication that goes beyond the barriers of language, history, nationality, culture and religion. On account of the multiaspectual analysis of the European poetry from the end of the XIX-th century and the beginning of the XX-th, of the studies on literary history, we have deducted that the symbolism represents the beginning of the modern poetry at the international and national level. Verlaine’s well known urge (De la musique avant toute chose – Music beyond everything) has been quietly followed by different symbolist orientations.

For the first time and in a different light, there are appreciated some of Bacovia’s (the modern Romanian’s poetry iceberg) fundamental aspects of creation and of the bacovianism - a native derivative of the universal symbolism. The Bacovianism is the expression of an unrepeatable literary practice. If the great symbolism has reborn the crisis of the century, Bacovia should be the first who has profoundly deepened the crisis through which the humanity is passing, creating a new language.Thus, the tendency of a regional literature, as the one from the east Moldavia, to “acquire” from symbolism and bacovianism themes and motives, to profoundly poetize the dramatism of the human condition. The two synaestheatic poles may be defined as “autohtonizant” (autochthonous or native) (the symbolism and bacovianism) and “autohtonizat” ( the Romanian literature from Basarabia). The inter-war writers and part of the contemporary poets, aboriginate several symbolist models: the baudelarianism, the esenianism and the bacovianism.

The synthesis of the intertextual relations allowed us to deduce that the Romanian poetry from the east Moldavia, and afterwards, the novel (except drama) have been from the very first moments of the symbolism’ birth in an exegetic borrowing relationship with the European and national relationship (in the right of the Prut river), even proposing manifestos of a symbolist consistency (George Meniuc, Bogdan Istru, Nicolai Costenco, Paul Mihnea…)

We have enough reasons to believe that the native bacovianism has happened as a revolution between the moldavian-slavofil sentimentalism and the much too late romanticism in these mioritical regions. If Bacovia was a model for the inter-war writers and a prestigious forerunner by divination and instinct for the entire post-war generation, it is only natural to consider all the poets from Basarabia, in a bigger or smaller degree, as descendent from bacovianism. The worldwide symbolist experience still helps the Basarabian penholders to define in an easier way, the tragic and the humorous existentialism, and the Apocalypse that accompanies it. The symbolism and the bacovianism continue to transmit “massages” for today’s poetical generation.