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CNAA / Theses / 2006 / June /

Development of special education in the Republic of Moldova: history and perspectives

Author: Aurelia Racu
Degree:doctor habilitat of history
Speciality: 07.00.10 - History of Science (with specification of branches of science)
Scientific consultant: Andrei Eşanu
doctor habilitat, professor, Institute of History of the ASM


The thesis was presented on the 2 June, 2006
Approved by NCAA on the 28 September, 2006


Adobe PDF document0.64 Mb / in romanian


defectology, special pedagogy, special psycho-pedagogy, correctional pedagogy; deficiency, disability/ incapability, handicap, children with special needs, special educational needs; rehabilitation, habilitation, compensational intervention, early intervention, prophylaxis; intervention, institutionalization, deinstitutionalization, democratization, normalization, integration, inclusion, alternative services, life quality, education for all; social-professional integration, integration into local communities; special education, inclusive education/training, integrated education/training, alternative institutions, multi professional team, complex psycho-pedagogical and medico-social assistance / intervention, mixed educational institution, support personnel, occupational therapist, support for teachers, standards, curriculum, management strategic - strategic management


The research is dedicated to the history of conception and development of the national system of special education in the Republic of Moldova (NSSE). The scientific report establishes origin of special education (SE) in the world, in the Middle Ages and Modern Moldova, in Basarabia, in the Soviet Socialist Autonomous Republic of Moldova, in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova, and in the Republic of Moldova as well as the steps of the development of SE in the world — institutionalization, deinstitutionalization, and community integration. It is mentioned that the values of SE have developed from a compassionate social moral and spiritual treatment of persons with disabilities up to creation of some national systems of education and recovery of such persons, which were based on scientific, educational and social-professional principles.

In the Republic of Moldova, a NSSE was not established until 1960-1970, because the territory on which Moldova was founded as an independent state has been annexed to Russia (later - to the USSR) exactly in the period of inception of national educational systems. That is why the NSSE possesses the characteristic features of the soviet ideology and pedagogical principles, the predominant one being the segregation of persons with disabilities through total institutionalization. Thus, the modification of the SE is especially determined by the reformation of SE system and constitution of NSSE.

Being the researcher of the history of pedagogical science, the author also presents herself as a creator of the NSSE and therefore establishes the premises of creation of NSSE (legal and normative framework, sensitivity of the civil society and decision makers to problems and perspectives of SE, positive features of the soviet SE system, advanced experience in the domain, availability of a national system of primary and continuous professional development of pedagogical personnel, western experience and theoretical principles), reveals the problems of the period of creation of NSSE as related to the principles of modern SE - early and opportune intervention, integration and inclusion, monitors the implementation of these principles within SE in the Republic of Moldova, pays attention to the risks of the period of reorganization of SE establishments and integration of children with disabilities into general school, recommends a moderate rhythm of re-structuring / formation of SNNE.

The practical value of the research consists in recommendations on consolidation/ development of NSSE.

The author pointed to a major problem of SE, and the values proposed for its resolving revealed a new research domain - evolution of the national system of special education as a unitary theoretic-praxiological process "within the European educational framework.