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Evaluation of new apple varieties grown in the super-intensive cultivation system in the conditions of the Republic of Moldova

Author: Bîlici Inna
Degree:doctor of agriculture
Speciality: 06.01.07 - Fruit Production
Scientific adviser: Valerian Balan
doctor habilitat, professor, Agrarian State University of Moldova
Institution: Agrarian State University of Moldova


The thesis was presented on the 4 December, 2020
Approved by NCAA on the 26 February, 2021


Adobe PDF document1.07 Mb / in romanian
Adobe PDF document0.68 Mb / in romanian


CZU 634.11:631.526.32(478)

Adobe PDF document 5.95 Mb / in romanian
159 pages


apple varieties, tree training and pruning, growth regulators, crop load management, yield, fruit quality


Thesis structure includes 120 pages of the basic text, 3 chapters, 43 tables, 41 figures, general, 5 annexes conclusions and recommendations for production, as well as suggestions for future research and a bibliography of 174 sources.

Publications on the thesis theme: the obtained results were published in 13 scientific papers, including 2 patents.

Purpose: consists in enhancing the productivity of apple plantations by identifying high yielding apple varieties and developing new methods to maintain a balance between growths and fruiting.

Objectives: To study the behavior of new apple varieties in terms of growth and fruiting capacity, in order to promote the most valuable assortment for obtaining constant, high and qualitative yields; To determine the intensity of physiological growth and fruiting processes, in correlation with the agrobiological potential of the apple varieties Granny Smith, Gala Buckeye Simmons, Golden Delicious Reinders, Red Velox and Fuji Kiku, grafted on M9 and grown in the central fruit growing zone of the Republic of Moldova; To establish the processes for apple tree training and pruning that highlight the natural growth and fruiting potential of the variety, in order to obtain competitive fruits with intense colour and higher biochemical content; To study the response of apple varieties to the effect of growth regulators on the crop load management, productivity and quality of fruits; To highlight the economic effects of apple production depending on the variety and the method of crop load management, by promoting the cultivation of valuable and high yielding apple varieties in high-density orchards.

Scientific novelty and originality of the scientific results consist in: identifying high yielding apple varieties of the world collection, which have priority for high-density orchards established in the climatic conditions of the central region of the Republic of Moldova; scientific argumentation of the new methodology for the formation and maintenance of the apple tree crown shape grown under the slender spindle system [21]; determining the parameters of the plantation structure and maintaining the physiological balance of trees; demonstrating the advantages of crop load management from an agronomic and economic point of view in order to obtain sustainable yields.

The novelty and originality of the obtained results is justified by 1 patent for the maintenance of the tree crown, as well as by 3 distinctions at international invention salons offered for these innovations.

The obtained results, which contribute to solving the important problem of enhancing the productivity of high-density apple plantations and increasing the economic efficiency of apple production, consist in the scientific substantiation of using high yielding varieties, methods of crop load management and maintaining the physiological balance of trees. As a result, the thesis gives recommendations on the production of 4 new apple varieties from the World collection, crown shape maintenance procedures.

The theoretical value of the research: consists in accumulating new scientific data that contribute to the completion of knowledge on the tree pruning and training according to the slender spindle crown shape and completing the scientific database in order to develop the optimal model of crown shape of apple trees in high-density orchards.

The applicative value of the research. It is recommended: to grow Gala Buckeye Simmons, Golden Delicious Reinders, Granny Smith and Fuji Kiku apple varieties, grafted on M9, using the recommended method of tree training according to the slender spindle crown shape [21; 33; 38] and to perform chemical thinning of the de rod organs [37].

Implementation of the results: the recommendations related to the apple varieties and the technological procedures for the maintenance of the fruit plantations were implemented in the the agricultural farms of APEF Moldova Fruct: „Prodcar” Ltd., „Elit Fruct”, Ltd., and IE „Petru Balan”.