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Slovakian State Policy Regarding the Roma Community in 1939-1989: A Political Science Dimension

Author: Janas Karol
Degree:doctor habilitat of political Sciences
Speciality: 23.00.01 - Theory, Methodology and History of Political Sciences; Political Institutions and Processes
Scientific consultant: Alexandru Burian
doctor habilitat, professor, Institute of History of the ASM


The thesis was presented on the 26 January, 2021
Approved by NCAA on the 25 June, 2021


Adobe PDF document0.88 Mb / in romanian
Adobe PDF document0.82 Mb / in russian


Roma community, Roma issue, Slovak society, Slovakia, state policy, ethnic minority, persecution, Roma movement


Scientific abstract for the degree of doctor habilitat of political sciences (based on published works). Specialties: 561.01 - Theory, Methodology of Political sciences; Political institutions and processes; 562.04 - Theory of European integration, European institutions, Processes and Policies. Chisinau, 2020.

Structure of the abstract: introduction, three chapters, general conclusions and recommendations, bibliography, consisting of 65 sources, 50 pages of the main text. The results of the study are presented in 42 published scientific works, including 6 monographs and 24 scientific articles published in various scientific publications of national and international level.

Field of study: political sciences, gypsy studies.

The goal of the study is to analyze the state policy of Slovakia regarding the Roma during 1939-1989 based on the whole complex and controversial issues in the history of the Roma issue and the documents of domestic archives and modern historiography introduced for the first time into the scientific circulation. Research objectives: to reveal the content of the concept of „ Roma” through the prism of „ethnicity” and „ethnic identity”; summarize and systematize the accumulated information on the study and interpretation of the „ Roma issue” in Slovakia, based on archival materials that have not been previously studied; analyze the evolution of the Roma issue during World War II and the post-war reconstruction, which caused a new wave of Roma movement; analyze the attitude of the Slovak authorities to the Roma community in Slovakia during 1939-1945; identify features of the policy of persecution of Roma; identify and disclose the features of the functioning of labor brigades for Roma and asocial persons; to analyze the measures of persecution of Roma in Slovakia after the German military occupation; analyze the state policy of Slovakia in relation to the Roma during the years 1950-1960. and its impact on the integration of Roma into Slovak society; to reveal the specifics of the ethnosocial development of the Roma of Slovakia in the period 1939-1989; to consider the features of the socio-economic integration of Roma in Slovak society right up to the start of the „velvet revolution”; to consider the features of the functioning of the Union of Roma of Slovakia, to reveal its influence on the state policy of Slovakia.

The scientific novelty and originality is determined by the fact that this is the first study carried out a holistic analysis of Slovakia’s state policy on the Roma issue in terms of historical and political premises. The results of the study made it possible to propose a certain periodization of the movement of Roma during and after the Second World War. The originality of the study lies in the development of a chronology of the main stages of the development of an internal political dialogue with the Roma community and in the identification on a new documentary basis of causal links between the implementation of the program for its integration into Slovak society and the economy and the adoption of political decisions in this area.

Fundamentally new results. The study revealed the specifics of the legal, political and socio-economic situation of the Roma community in Slovakia at various stages of its development; revealed the features and factors of politicization of the „Roma issue” in the socio-political discourse of Slovakia; revealed the role of foreign and domestic political processes in the formation of the „Roma policy” of Slovakia during 1939-1989; determined the essence and main features of the Slovak model of resolving the Roma issue in the political, legal and institutional vein.

The theoretical and practical significance of the abstract is the actualization and structuration of specific historical knowledge. The study provides an opportunity to fully comprehend the changes in public policy in relation to the Roma community, to consider models for building relationships with other actors. An important section of the study is the relationship between national and ethnic factors in Slovak discourse. Research materials can be used in the teaching of the relevant disciplines regarding the programs of higher educational and specialized institutions.

Application of scientific results. The main theoretical provisions of the study were applied in the development of educational and methodological documentation, while giving lectures at the Department of Romological Studies of the University of Constantine the Philosopher in Nitra in 2013-2014 in the course „History of the Roma”; at the Department of World Politics and International Relations of the European University of Moldova in the course „Ethnic Factor in International Relations”. The findings and recommendations of the study were used in the preparation of expert opinions for the Office of the Public Defender of Rights of the Czech Republic, as well as in the work of the Board of Directors of the Memory of the Peoples of the Slovak Republic, of which the author was a member during 2012-2018.