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Diffractive optics for optical and digital holography

Author: Achimova Elena
Degree:doctor habilitat of Physics
Speciality: 01.04.10 - Semiconductors physics and engineering
Scientific adviser: Leonid Culiuc
doctor habilitat, professor, Institute of Applied Physics of the
Institution: Institute of Applied Physics of the


The thesis was presented on the 22 February, 2019
Approved by NCAA on the 19 April, 2019


Adobe PDF document1.28 Mb / in english
Adobe PDF document1.42 Mb / in romanian


CZU 532.42:535.317.2(043.2)

Adobe PDF document 10.92 Mb / in english
250 pages


diffractive optics, optical and digital holography, chalcogenide glasses (ChG), nanomultilayers, azopolymers (AP), scalar and vector holographic recording, digital holographic interferometry and microscopy, optical and digital image processing


Thesis structure: The thesis contains Introduction, 5 chapters, general conclusions and recommendations, bibliography of 229 titles. The main text amounts to 245 pages, includes 2 Annexes, 187 figures, 12 tables, 57 formulas. The obtained results of the thesis were published in 63 scientific papers.

Aim of research is R&D of diffractive optics elements which are combination of optical elements, devices and technologies, and their operation algorithms. The objectives of thesis include the development of optical elements based on nanomultilayers (NML) structures from ChG and AP as recording media; the development of digital and optical holographic technologies for creation diffractive optics elements (DOE) on NML media from ChG and AP thin films; the investigation of applicability of these holographic methods as tools for studying of materials optical properties in nanoscale; DOE application in the form of optical components in optoelectronics and photonics, biomedicine and security.

Scientific novelty and originality of the obtained results: are determined experimentally that in the ChG-Se NML and the AP thin films the complex variations of optical parameters (refractive index, absorption coefficient) take place responding to the action of both scalar and vector components of the field of optical radiation; the direct surface relief gratings are formed under optical and digital holographic recordings which are conditioned by vectoral (spatially anisotropic) response of the medium; the surface relief gratings patterned on the ChG-Se NML are governed by photoinduced structuration in nanolayers ChG and Se that leads to mass transfer in the ChG-Se NML; the surface relief gratings patterned on the AP thin films are governed by photoinduced trans-cis-trans transformations in the AP that leads to mass transfer in this media; it was elaborated and recorded the phase DOE on the ChG-Se NML and the AP thin films, and their potentials and limitations for practical application were studied; the potential impact of the work consists in the development of the advanced optical techniques for diffractive structures recording and investigations at nanoscale.

Important scientific problem consists in elaborating of the theoretical and applied aspects of the processes induced in amorphous materials by light and electron irradiation leading to pattern in these sensitive media the diffractive structures and the application of them in optical and digital holography.

Applicative value of the work is that the systematic studies of ability ChG NML and AP to be structured by laser writing methods, exposure with e-beam radiation, and digital hologram recording open up perspectives for development and/or optimization of wide a variety of applications in optoelectronics and photonics (diffractive optics, medicine, counterfeiting elements, holographic methods of non-distractive testing etc.).

Implementation of results: the results obtained have been applied in the successful implementation of 15 international (ЕС, FP7, Horizon-2020, bilateral) and national applicative projects.


  • 1.1. Materials
    1. Properties of chalcogenide glasses and nanostructures based on chalcogenide glasses .
    2. Azo-dyed polymers films
  • 1.2. Recording methods
    1. Optical holography
    2. Vector or polarization holography
    3. Digital holography
  • 1.3. Studying methods
    1. Raman and Optical spectroscopy
    2. Digital holographic microscopy
    3. Digital holographic interferometry
  • 1.4. Application of diffractive structures based on chalcogenide glasses multilayers and azodyed polymers films
  • 1.5. Objectives of the work and new contribution

  • 2.1. Thermal vacuum deposition of nanomultilayers and polymer films spin-coating
  • 2.2. Carrier photoinjection at ChG-ChG interface
  • 2.3. Optical and Raman spectroscopy measurements
    1. Optical spectroscopy measurements
    2. Raman Spectroscopy
  • 2.4. Digital holographic measurements
  • 2.5. Conclusions to Chapter 2

  • 3.1. Intensity holographic recording
  • 3.2. Polarization holographic pattering
  • 3.3. Digital holography recording
  • 3.4. Conclusions to Chapter 3

  • 4.1. Diffraction efficiency method
  • 4.2. Digital holographic interferometry
  • 4.3. Digital holographic microscopy
  • 4.4. Imaging ellipsometry and AFM measurements
  • 4.5. Conclusion to Chapter 4

  • 5.1. Security hologram elements
  • 5.2. Diffractive optics elements
  • 5.3. Digital holography
  • 5.4. Conclusion to Chapter 5

Main conclusions and recommendations