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Reglarea regimurilor hidric al solului și de nutriţie a tomatelor semănate în câmp deschis la irigarea prin picurar


Author: Gradinar Dmitrii
Degree:doctor of agriculture
Speciality: 06.01.06 - Vegetable Production
Year:2019
Scientific advisers: Alexei Gumaniuc
doctor habilitat, associate professor (docent)

,
Scientific consultant: Vasile Botnari
doctor habilitat, associate professor (docent)
Institution: Institute of Genetics, Physiology and Plant Protection of the ASM

Status

The thesis was presented on the 28 March, 2019 at the meeting of the Scientific Council and now it is under consideration of the National Council.

Abstract

Adobe PDF document1.37 Mb / in romanian
Adobe PDF document1.07 Mb / in russian

Thesis

CZU 35.64:[631.432:631.811:631.67](043.2)

Adobe PDF document 7.10 Mb / in russian
143 pages


Summary

Regulation of the water regime of the soil and the nutrient regime of plants in the growing direct-seeded tomato in open ground using drip irrigation”, the Doctor’s thesis in Agricultural Sciences for specialty 411.05 – Vegetable-Growing, Chisinau, 2019. Thesis structure: introduction, four chapters, conclusions and practical recommendations, bibliography of 218 sources, 98 basic text pages with 32 tables and 44 figures, 6 appendixes. The results are published in 15 scientific publications. Key words: tomatoes, drip irrigation, fertilization, water consumption, yield, dependence of factors, economic and energy efficiency. Field of the study: Vegetable growing. Aim of the work: Development of technological parameters of cultivation of directseeded tomato in open ground with drip irrigation by optimizing the water and nutrient regimes of the soil, providing economically viable levels of yield. Objectives: Establishment of rational irrigation rates for surface drip irrigation; determination of the duration of inter-irrigation periods in the cultivation of direct-seeded tomatoes; establishing optimal doses of mineral fertilizers within reducing the norms of irrigation and volumes of water, providing economically viable levels of yield and quality of tomato fruits; determining the magnitude of the shortage of tomato crops in conditions of deficit of soil moisture as a result of reduction in irrigation norms; increasing the efficiency of water use from soil and precipitations by optimizing the irrigated regime of tomatoes; establishing the dependence “irrigation norm-yield”, “inter-irrigation period-yield”, “water consumption-yield” and “fertilizer-yield” in order to determine climatically assured levels of productivity of tomato under drip irrigation; energy and economic assessment of the technological parameters in cultivation of direct-seeded tomatoes under drip irrigation. Scientific novelty and originality of the work. It was established that the interval between irrigation should be five days when tomato is cultivated on typical black soil of the Transnistrian region on the background of mineral fertilizers in a dose of N190 with full norm irrigation; determining the total and average daily water consumption under various conditions of water availability and irrigation norms, the dynamics of nutrients in the soil depending on the doses of fertilizers; the economic and energy assessment of the technological parameters in cultivation of direct-seeded tomato under drip irrigation is done. Solution of the important scientific problem consists in the scientific underlying rationale norms of irrigation, inter-irrigation periods and elements of the nutrient regime, which made it possible to improve the technological parameters of the cultivation of direct-seeded tomato, thereby contributing to obtaining the planned levels of yield and high quality of production. Theoretical significance: the dependences “irrigation norm-yield”, “inter-irrigation period-yield”, “water consumption-yield” and “fertilizer-yield” were established to determine economically viable levels of tomato productivity using drip irrigation. Practical significance. The parameters of the irrigation regime in the cultivation of direct-seeded tomato on drip irrigation have been developed which ensure a more efficient use of soil moisture and irrigation water resources and increasing the profitability of the crop. At the same time, the optimal yield was obtained at a five-day inter-irrigation period, regardless of the type of fertilizer, and the quality of the fruits remained at the level of the requirements of the food and processing industry. The results can be used in the educational process for the vegetable growers in universities and other scientific organizations. Implementation of scientific results: the results of the research have been implemented in Ltd “Planter”, Slobodzeya district. Watering direct-seeded tomatoes by drip method once in 5 days with irrigated norms reduced by 30% on the background of N150P30 against watering by drip method once in 5 days with the full norm applying N190 kg a.v./ha provided a net profit as 2234 against 2766 $ / ha respectively.