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The Evolution of Primary and Secondary Education in Bessarabia in 1918-1940

Author: Crețu Vasile
Degree:doctor of history
Speciality: 07.00.02 - History of Romanians (with specification of time period)
Scientific adviser: Anatol Petrencu
doctor habilitat, professor, Moldova State University
Scientific consultant: Gheorghe Palade
doctor, associate professor (docent), Moldova State University
Institution: Moldova State University


The thesis was presented on the 16 January, 2020
Approved by NCAA on the 28 February, 2020


Adobe PDF document0.83 Mb / in romanian


CZU 4(478)„1918/1940”: 373.3/.4(043.3)

Adobe PDF document 4.22 Mb / in romanian
181 pages


Bessarabia, Romania, primary education, secondary education, russification, nationalization of education, teacher training courses, Directorate of Public Instruction, Ministry of Public Instruction, primary education legislation, secondary education legislation, schools, school committees, teaching associations


Thesis structure: Introduction, four chapters, general conclusions and recommendations, 239 titles of bibliography, 150 pages of basic text and 8 tables, 18 figures. The obtained results are published in 22 scientific papers.

Purpose and objectives of the research: the purpose of this paper is to analyze the multidisciplinary evolution of the primary and secondary education in Bessarabia in the years 1918-1940 as part of the Romanian education.

Objectives: the research on the level of study of primary and secondary education starting with the first studies published at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with the latest scientific achievements (the analysis of the Romanian and Bessarabian works elaborated in the interwar period, the Soviet and the post-Soviet ones); the elucidation of the process of nationalization of primary and secondary education, and the training of the first teachers for primary and secondary schools; the reflection of the reforms in the primary and secondary education that were carried out during the inter-war period; the appreciation of the role of the school committees in the process of building the primary and secondary schools between 1918 and 1940.

The scientific novelty and originality of the work consists in capitalizing on the documentary sources, largely unpublished, regarding the primary and secondary school in Bessarabia which was absolutely rusificated until 1917, as well as the study, systematization of the archival sources regarding the first actions of nationalization of the Bessarabian school undertaken by the school and Guberniyal authorities even until the Union.

The theoretical importance results from knowing and understanding the historical past of Bessarabia during 1918-1940, mainly the organization and activity of the educational system of that period, the achieved successes and the shortcomings in the respective field. Its results and certain findings and solutions can be proven in the history of Bessarabian education, in particular, and in describing the evolution of social, economic and political reform processes, in general.

Application value of the paper. The results of the research can be used in the elaboration of the works on primary and secondary education in the inter-war Bessarabia regarding the process of nationalization of the primary and secondary education in the years 1917-1922. The results of the investigation can be used in the elaboration of the history books of the Romanians for gymnasiums and high-schools and can serve as a reference source for writing Bachelor, Master and Doctoral theses, as well as for course elaboration in the field of education.

Implementation of scientific results. The scientific results of our investigation have been implemented by presenting reports and communications focused on the issue to 13 national and international conferences, and also at the courses taught at the Tiraspol State University, faculty of Filology, Pedagogy etc.